Research Article

Kinematics and Electromyographic Analysis of Gait with Different Footwear

Carlos Alberto Kelencz*, Ingrid Solange Sepúlveda Muñoz, Paulo Rui de Oliveira, Bruno Mazziotti and Cesar Ferreira Amorim

Published: 24 January, 2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-006

Kinematic analysis and surface electromyography are tools being used as important methods to evaluate the human gait and to analyze different types of footwear aiming modifications and adaptations to the human locomotor system, especially of the feet. The aim of the present study was to analyze through electromyography (EMG) the muscles tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and to capture digital images of the human gait in four different footware situations, barefoot with tennis, platform shoes and high heels. Twenty healthy women with a mean age of 22.6 years took part in this experiment, which was performed on a treadmill at a speed of 3.8 m/s. The results showed that shoes that do not allow a normal movement of the tarsal bones caused changes in the trajectory of the gait, which promotes a greater muscular movement. This study concluded that shoes closer to a normal position and allow greater mobility of the feet, decrease muscular demands, which in everyday situations cause less localized muscular fatigue. 

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.hps.1001001 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Electromyography; EMG; Human gait; Footwear


  1. Winter DA. The biomechanics and motor control of human gait: normal, elderly and pathologiacal. Ontário. University of Waterloo Press. 1991. Ref.: https://goo.gl/NGpRFu
  2. Díaz CA, Torres A, Ramírez JI, García LF, Álvarez N. Descripción De un Dispositivo Destinado al análisis de la marcha en dos Dimensiones, cineMED. Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia. 2006; 5: 85-92. Ref.: https://goo.gl/gecED8
  3. Lieber RL. Skeletal muscle structure and funtion. Blatimore, Williams & Wilkins (1992).
  4. Teixeira CE, Retondar JJ. The use of high heel by young women: the biomechanic of movement and the imaginary of elegance. Rev Corpus Scient. 2011; 7: 38-54.
  5. Araújo CC, Preis C, Ribas D, Romanovitch I, Faller L, et al. “Sistemas de Avaliação da Marcha Humana” Mestrandos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná. 2006.
  6. Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. New York: 2005.
  7. Normas Técnicas NBR 14834 a 14840, Ed. ABNT, 2002.
  8. Okaia LA, Moraes JCT. “Avaliação Funcional de um Sistema para Análise de Movimento”. Anais VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Biomecânica. 1999; 339-344.
  9. Campos, Alessandra Oliveira, Hutten, Patrícia, Freitas et al. Análise das alterações biomecânicas da força de reação do solo durante adaptação da marcha em esteira. Revista Brasileira de Biomecânica. 2002; 3: 13-9. Ref.: https://goo.gl/x7iCz2
  10. PPaterniani PE, Sbrenzikofer R, Lima EC, Lago O, Barros RML. “Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para reconstrução Tridimensional e Análise de superfícies do Corpo Humano”. VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Biomecânica, 1999; 299-303.
  11. David AC. Aspectos Biomecânicos da Locomoção Infantil. IX Congresso Brasileiro de Biomecânica. 2001; 20-24.
  12. Delagi EF, Peortto AO, Iazzetti J, Morrison D. Anotomical guide for the electromyography. 2004.
  13. Surface Electromyography for the Non-invasive Assessment of Muscles. SENIAM project. 2008.
  14. Amorim CF, Giannasi LC, Ferreira LM, Magini M, Oliveira CS et al. Behavior analysis of electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle in sleep bruxers. J Body Mov Ther. 2010; 14: 234-238. Ref.: https://goo.gl/r1jbqN
  15. de Oliveira Pezzan PA, João SMA, Ribeiro AP, Manfio EF. Postural assessment of lumbar lordosis and pelvic alignment angles in adolescent users and nonusers of high-heeled shoes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011; 34: 614-21. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Rtxwbz
  16. Wang YT, Pascoe DD, Kim CK, Xu D. Forces patterns of heel strike and toe off on different heel heights in normal walking. Foot Ankle Int. 2001; 22: 486-492. Ref.: https://tinyurl.com/y4fd3fuy
  17. Gefen A, Megido-Ravid M, Itzchak Y, Arcan M. Analysis of muscular fatigue and foot stability during high-heeled gait. Gait Posture. 2002; 15: 56-63. Ref.: https://goo.gl/PfsOXa
  18. Pezzan PA, Sacco IC, João SM. Foot posture and classification of the plantar arch among adolescent wearers and non-wearers of high-heeled shoes. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2009; 13: 398-404. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FCpRjk
  19. De Luca CJ. The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics. JAB. 1997; 13: 135-163. Ref.: https://goo.gl/DAFwvv
  20. Basmajian JV, De Luca CJ. Muscle alive: their function revealed by electromyography. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 1985.
  21. Disponível em. Ref.: seniam.org


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 1

Figure 5

Figure 1

Figure 6

Similar Articles

  • Kinematics and Electromyographic Analysis of Gait with Different Footwear
    Carlos Alberto Kelencz*, Ingrid Solange Sepúlveda Muñoz, Paulo Rui de Oliveira, Bruno Mazziotti and Cesar Ferreira Amorim Carlos Alberto Kelencz*,Ingrid Solange Sepúlveda Muñoz,Paulo Rui de Oliveira,Bruno Mazziotti,Cesar Ferreira Amorim. Kinematics and Electromyographic Analysis of Gait with Different Footwear. . 2017 doi: 10.29328/journal.hps.1001001; 1: 001-006

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?